a town in Provence which since 1957 has hosted the famous summer theatre festival founded and directed by Jean Vilar. Grotowski participated in it in summer 1957 as a member of an international group of young theatre artists invited to the World Youth Festival (16 July – 1 August) which was part of the theatre festival. Together with a group of Polish participants, Grotowski prepared a parody of Ionesco’s Chairs. He described his impressions in a newspaper report (published as ‘Lekcja w Awinionie’ (Lesson in Avignon), Gazeta Krakowska, 5 September 1957, p. 3), which was proof of his fascination with Vilar’s project while maintaining a critical attitude towards it.